Wasps and Hornets
JLM Pest Control covering West Kent, Sussex
Pest Control Rats
Norway rats are the largest species of commensal rodents (i.e. they live with humans) and due to their size, they prefer to remain on the ground. They burrow in nests at ground level, and often stay within 100 feet of their homes.
Norway rats are social and are not afraid to enter residences. But don’t take their social behaviour as friendliness – these pests will bite, and with teeth strong enough to chew through PVC pipe and mild steel. You can also contract one of the many diseases they carry with them, so stay away.
If you have rats in your house and there are no obvious signs of entry from the outside of your building, you will find that 80% of rat cases are linked to your sewers and drainage.
Rats love to live around an easy food source. Over loaded bins, bird tables, city centres and waste sites will attract rats.
Rats under your decking.
Rats in your loft.
Rats under your shed.
Pest Control Mice
House mice are the most common commensal rodent in the world. With tiny eyes and big ears, they’re far cuter than any rat. These vermin contaminate food stores and are direct carriers of many human diseases. One female can have a litter of up to eight babies eight times each year. These rodents will only bite if threatened or confronted.
Mice migrate back into homes and businesses in early Autumn where they quickly find small holes and gaps to squeeze into kitchens and cavity walls. Early prevention is important, as if you leave it, they quickly multiply.
Pest Control Squirrels
Squirrels possess sharp incisors, which they can use to cut through eaves, shingles and roof vents, allowing them to enter attics and dormers. When squirrels nest in attics, they ruin insulation with urine and faeces and shred it for nesting. Their affinity for chewing the plastic coatings on wires makes having them in your building a serious fire hazard. Because squirrels can cause serious damage in a short amount of time, we act swiftly to get squirrels out.
Squirrels breed twice each year, so it is important to get them out of attics quickly once they enter. Squirrels are noisy during breeding times and can be heard running, chewing and playing. Since squirrels are active during the day, it is during daylight hours when they cause the most noise. Because of this, homeowners may not know for some time that squirrels are living in their home, since squirrels tend to be relatively quiet in the evening when families are home.
Pest Control Moles
Moles are a common pest animal. Moles will cause damage to your lawn and garden as they dig tunnels for food. Moles will destroy your landscaping as they build burrows in the ground. The best way to remove moles is by trapping them.
Moles also take up residence under porches and patios. Moles create tunnels underground and “push up” the dirt that is excavated and deposit it on the surface of your lawn or landscape. Moles commonly eat earthworms and grubs.
Mole control and removal should be initiated as soon as the animal has been discovered living in your lawn as moles will tunnel through damaging root systems and making it unstable to walk on the lawn. Expensive landscaping can be ruined quickly by this very small animal.
Pest Control Pigeons
Feral Pigeons are pigeons that are derived from the domestic pigeons that have returned to the wild.
The domestic pigeon was originally bred from the wild rock dove, which naturally inhabits sea-cliffs and mountains. Rock (i.e., "wild"), domestic, and feral pigeons are all the same species and will readily interbreed.
Feral pigeons find the ledges of buildings to be a substitute for sea cliffs, have become adapted to urban life, and are abundant in towns and cities throughout much of the world. Due to their abilities to create large amounts of excrement and to carry disease, combined with crop and property damage, pigeons are largely considered a nuisance and an invasive species, with steps being taken in many municipalities to lower their numbers or completely eradicate them.
Abandoned buildings are favorite nesting areas. Mass nesting is common as pigeons are a community flocking bird; often, dozens of birds share a building. Loose tiles and broken windows provide access, and pigeons are adept at spotting new access points, for example following property damage caused by strong winds.
Nests and droppings tend to stay clustered and remain dry when out of the weather. Pigeons are particularly fond of roof spaces. These often contain water tanks. Any water tank or cistern on a roof must, therefore, be secured and sealed off to keep the pigeons out of them. The popularity of a nesting area does not seem to be affected by the pigeons' population density.
On undamaged property, the gutters, window air conditioners and empty air conditioner containers, chimney pots, and external ledges are used as nesting sites. Many building owners try to limit roosting by using bird control spikes and netting to cover ledges and potential nesting places on buildings. This has little effect on the size of the pigeon population, but it can reduce the accumulation of droppings on and around a particular building location.
Feral pigeons are often considered a pest or even vermin, owing to concerns that they spread disease especially bird flu, but it has been shown pigeons do not carry the deadly H5N1 strain. It is rare that a pigeon will transmit a disease to humans due to their immune system.
Pest Control Fleas
Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark coloured (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis, or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host's blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are adapted to grasp a host.
Unlike other insects, fleas do not possess compound eyes but instead only have simple eyespots with a single biconvex lens; some species lack eyes altogether. Their bodies are laterally compressed, permitting easy movement through the hairs or feathers on the host's body (or in the case of humans, under clothing). The flea body is covered with hard plates called sclerites. These sclerites are covered with many hairs and short spines directed backward, which also assist its movements on the host. The tough body is able to withstand great pressure, likely an adaptation to survive attempts to eliminate them by scratching.
Fleas lay tiny, white, oval eggs. The larvae are small and pale, have bristles covering their worm-like bodies, lack eyes, and have mouth parts adapted to chewing. The larvae feed on organic matter, especially the feces of mature fleas, which contain dried blood. Adults feed only on fresh blood.
Pest Control Fleas
Bed Bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flat, oval, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) long and 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.118 in) wide.
Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in colour, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odour when crushed.
Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.
The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.
Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 °C (61.0 °F), adults enter semi-hibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at −10 °C (14 °F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to −32 °C (−26 °F). Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at −12 °C (10 °F). They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35–40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.
The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45 °C (113 °F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F). Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours
Pest Control Flies
Flies are often abundant and are found in almost all terrestrial habitats in the world apart from Antarctica.
They include many familiar insects such as house flies, blow flies, mosquitoes, gnats, black flies, midges and fruit flies.
More than 150,000 have been formally described and the actual species diversity is much greater, with the flies from many parts of the world yet to be studied intensively.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings". Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings having evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs known as halteres, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow dipterans to perform advanced aerobatics.
Diptera is a large order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies,[a] crane flies, hoverflies and others, although only about 125,000 species have been described.
Flies have a mobile head, with a pair of large compound eyes, and mouthparts designed for piercing and sucking (mosquitoes, black flies and robber flies), or for lapping and sucking in the other groups.
Their wing arrangement gives them great maneuverability in flight, and claws and pads on their feet enable them to cling to smooth surfaces. Flies undergo complete metamorphosis; the eggs are laid on the larval food-source and the larvae, which lack true limbs, develop in a protected environment, often inside their food source.
The pupa is a tough capsule from which the adult emerges when ready to do so; flies mostly have short lives as adults.
Pest Control Cockroaches
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.
The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches.
Cockroaches are somewhat generalised insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects.
They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.
Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity.
They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Pest Control Clothes Moth
Clothes moths mate and deposit their eggs usually within 1–2 days of emergence from the pupae. The females do not live long (3–16 days) after egg deposition although the males of the webbing clothes moth can survive for about one month. The eggs hatch in 4–10 days in the summer, but may take up to three or more weeks in the winter. Depending on temperature and humidity, total developmental time (from egg to adult) varies from one to three months and can extend up to three or more years in some situations.
Males and females from both species shun light and are frequently overlooked by homeowners. When discovered, the adults are more likely to try to escape by running rapidly than by flying.
The webbing clothes moth will feed on hair, wool, fur, feathers, and similar animal products. Synthetics, cottons, and other plant materials are not attacked by the webbing clothes moth larvae unless these items are stained with food or body oils. Case Bearing clothes moths will attack any of the following: felts; dried carcasses or taxidermy mounts; wool clothing, carpets, or tapestries; feathers; furs; and plant-derived materials such as dried herbs, tobacco, tea, hemp, pharmaceuticals, and seeds and seed products.
Pest Control Food Moths
The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, alternatively spelled Indianmeal Moth, is a pyraloid moth of the family Pyralidae.
Alternative common names are North American high-flyer, Weevil moth and pantry moth; less specifically, it may be referred to as ‘flour moth’ or ‘grain moth’. The Almond Moth (Cadra cautella) is commonly confused with the Indianmeal Moth.
Adults are 8 – 10mm in length with 13 – 20mm wingspans. The outer half of the moths forewings is bronze, copper, or dark grey in colour, while the upper half are yellowish-grey, with a dark band at the intersection between the two. The moth larvae are off-white with brown heads. When these larvae mature, they are usually about 17mm long.
The entire life cycle of this species may take 30 to 300 days. Female moths lay between 60 and 400 eggs on a food surface, which are ordinarily smaller than 0.5mm and not sticky. The eggs hatch in 2 to 14 days. The larval stage lasts from 2 to 41 weeks, depending on the temperature.
Pest Control Wasps
Wasps are classified under the order Hymenoptera, which means membraneous wings. All the stinging insects belong to this group, and they are a highly evolved group of insects. Some Wasps live in Wasps nests in the UK. They all have complex social structures and ways of doing things. However, they all share a common aim to survive as a species.
The most commonly known wasps, such as Yellowjackets and Hornets, are in the family Vespidae and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality is favoured by the unusual haplodiploidsystem of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally closely related to each other.
Pest Control Woodworm
Woodworm is the wood-eating larvae of many species of beetle. It is also a generic description given to the infestation of a wooden item (normally part of a dwelling or the furniture in it) by these larvae.
Signs of woodworm usually consist of holes in the wooden item, with live infestations showing powder (faeces), known as frass, around the holes. The size of the holes varies, but are typically 1mm to 1.5mm in diameter for the most common household species. Adult beetles which emerged from the wood may also be found in the summer months.
Typically the adult beetles lay eggs on, or just under the surface of, a wooden item. The resulting grubs then feed on the wooden item causing both structural and cosmetic damage, before pupating and hatching as beetles which then breed, lay eggs, and repeat the process causing further damage.
As the beetles evolved consuming dead wood in various forest habitats, most grubs, if not all, typically require that the wooden item contain a higher moisture content than is normally found in wooden items in a typical home.
A building with a woodworm problem in the structure or furniture may well also have a problem with excess damp. The issue could be lack of ventilation in a roof space, cellar or other enclosed space within an otherwise dry building.
Whilst damp is a leading factor resulting in woodworm some species of wood-boring insect, such as the Wood-boring weevil, are only found in instances where fungal rot has already begun to occur.
Pigeon Proofing & Netting
Some of the control methods we offer are:
Netting (balconies, roof voids, air conditioning units and open access areas)
Spiking (pipes, canopies and ledges)
Installation of Bird Free Optical Gel
Trapping (with live traps)
Discreet culling programs (inside buildings, car parks only)
Reasons for control
Pigeons can carry disease such as salmonellosis, ornithosis bacteria in faeces can pose a serious health risk if not treated properly
Droppings are corrosive to masonry and paintwork can cause structural damage to buildings and vehicles over time
Nesting materials can block guttering and down pipes causing water damage to property
Contamination of air conditioning/ventilation systems supplies and equipment by guano (pigeon faeces)
Reduce the risk of slips and trips on walkways and human contact with guan
Anyone removing bird droppings carry a risk of inhaling dust particles containing microorganisms which cause ornithosis and many other serious diseases
Solar Panel Proofing
Pigeons nesting under solar panels are a significant problem on a national scale. What the solar panel fitters don’t tell you when they are putting them up, is that the necessary gap between your solar panels and the roof has created a perfect, safe, warm and sheltered nesting site for birds, and pigeons in particular.
Over time the activity of the birds can and will damage the panels and fittings, and see a significant build-up of corrosive pigeon mess on the panels and under them. This can also result in biting bird mites – associated with their nests – entering your property, which can be an expensive problem to deal with effectively.
And then there is the noise they make, which can drive even the calmest of us to distraction! The solution is to stop pigeons getting under your solar panels permanently.